Dating old books
Phonics were being taught to young children more than three centuries ago and are not just a modern craze, historians have claimed.
Analysis of one of the world's oldest children's books has revealed an early guide to the practice, which breaks down words into syllables to make them easier to learn.
The book is divided to give separate guides and instructions to younger and older children.
There are methods to develop reading, writing and maths skills with religious doctrine and moral instruction also given.
The glass is rough (not sharp) around the circumference of the Owens ring.
Notice also how unlike most pontil marks, the Owens ring covers the whole base of this bottle.
Owens' early bottles were often cruder than their hand blown hand tooled counterparts.
'D' is an action shot of how 'the dog will bite a thief at night'. The copy at Keele contains the handwritten notes of its previous owners, Mary Berks and Ann Berks from Newcastle under Lyme, Staffordshire, from around 1776. Research has suggested that phonics can boost children's reading age by an average of 28 months by the time they turn seven.
Scribbles in the back of the book appear to be Ms Berks' practice of styles and rhyming.
The Owens ring again covers the entire base and even intrudes out to the side of the bottle slightly.
In the center of the Owens Ring the Owens mark is shown the diamond.